DeSoto's Conquest Trail
NORTH GEORGIA & ALABAMA
ALL CONQUEST TRAILS   BATTLE of MABILA

DeSoto found Coosa in Georgia
"There is a mountain range to the north of Coosa, which runs east and west. It is fairly high and well wooded, but up to this time we do not know where it begins or ends." Fray Doming in Coosa, 1560, Priestley Luna Papers

DeSoto Trails - Press for Overview Written byDonald E. Sheppard
Drawings: Cheryl Lucente

INTRODUCTION    TO THIS POINT    SUPERSCRIPTS    South Georgia
NORTH FROM MABILA BATTLEGROUND in ALABAMA   REFERENCES

Hernando de Soto re-entered Georgia from Chattanooga, "On Tuesday (July 13, 1540, when) they crossed another river (South Chickamauga Creek, camping near Fort Oglethorpe, Georgia), and on Wednesday another large river (West Chickamauga Creek), and they slept in Tasqui (Lafayette)... On Thursday they went to another small town (above Trion) and passed other towns, and on Friday the Governor entered in Coosa..."R at Summerville, located beside Pigeon Mountain (photo above). "...one of the best and most abundant provinces we found..." B DeSoto timed his arrival there on the weekend of Full Moon for the safety it afforded.

You can read the translated details of North Georgia's Conquest
written by DeSoto's ChroniclersBiedma,  Rangel,  Elvas  &  Inca
DESOTO'S TRAIL ON GOOGLE EARTH  and  CONQUEST CALENDARS

North Georgia Artifacts - Press For More Info"Its chief (Coosa, who spoke a Muskogean dialect, different from the Carolina Cherokee Iroquoian language) came forth to receive us on a litter with great festivity and many people, because he has many subject towns..." B

"The chief came out to welcome him two crossbow flights from the town in a carrying chair borne on the shoulders of his principal men, seated on a cushion, and covered with a robe of marten skins of the form and size of a woman's shawl. He wore a crown of feathers... and around about him were many Indians playing and singing." E

"He ordered his Indians to move out of their dwellings, in which the governor and his men were lodged. In the storage bins and fields there was a great quantity of maize and beans. The land was very populous and had many large towns and planted fields which reached from one town to the other. It was a charming and fertile land, and grapes along the (Chattooga) river on vines climbing up into the trees." E

"The governor was accustomed to place a guard over the chief so that the chief might not go away, and took the chief along with him until leaving the chief's land; for by taking the chief, the people would await in their towns and the chief would give a guide and Indians as carriers (of their village's food). Before departing from their lands, (DeSoto) would give the chiefs leave to return to their homes as soon as he reached another dominion where others were (forced to be) given to him." E

Captive Native - Press for More Images"Those of Coosa, seeing their lord detained, thought ill of it and revolted and went away to hide themselves in the woods - both those of their lord's town and those of other chiefs towns, who were his vassals. The governor sent four captains, each in a different direction... They seized many Indians, men and women, who were put in chains. Upon seeing the harm they received, and how little they gained in absenting themselves, they came, saying that they wished to serve in whatever might be commanded them. Some of the principal men among those imprisoned were set free on petition of the chief. Of the rest, each man took away as slaves those he had in chains, without allowing them to go to their lands. Nor did many of them return except some whose good fortune and assiduous industry aided them, who managed to file off their chains at night; or some, who were able, while on the march, to wander away from the road upon observing any lack of care in their guard. They went off with their chains, their loads and the clothes they were carrying." E

"... and in truth, as eyewitnesses testified (at Spanish Inquests years later), it was a thing of much pity to see (those Indians); but God forgets no evil thing done nor does it remain without punishment, as this history will relate." R

In Coosa's Valley

"One day while the Spaniards were in this village of Cosa, its lord, who had eaten at the governor's table, having talked with him about many things pertaining to the conquest and settlement of the country and having replied to the entire satisfaction of the governor... said "Sir... if you are seeking good lands on which to settle, see fit to remain in mine and make an establishment in them. Into the Coosa River, North GeorgiaI believe that this is one of the best provinces that your lordship has seen among all of those that are in this kingdom, and moreover I assure your lordship that you have chanced to pass through and see the poorest and least desirable part of it. If your lordship should desire to examine it more closely, I will take you through other, better parts that will satisfy you entirely (today's Etowah and Rome), and you can take whatever part of them that seems best to you for settling and establishing your house and court. If you do not wish to grant me this favor at present, at least do not refuse to remain in this village during the coming winter, which is near, where we will serve you, as your lordship will see by our actions..." I

"The governor thanked him for his good will and told him that he was wholly unable to make an inland settlement until knowing what ports there were on the seacoasts to receive the ships and the people that would come to them from Spain or elsewhere with cattle and plants and the other things necessary for making settlements. At the proper time he would accept his offer and would always maintain friendship with him, and meanwhile he might rest assured that he would not delay in returning there and settling the country, and then he could do the things he asked for his gratification and satisfaction..." I

DeSoto's Route from Xuala to Coosa"...the governor saw fit to continue his journey toward the sea, which he was seeking. Since leaving the province of Xuala (Tryon, N.C.) we had marched toward the coast (the Gulf of Mexico), making an arc through the country in order to come out at the port of Achusi (Mobile Bay) as we had agreed with Captain Maldonado to do. The later had remained to explore the coast and was to return at the beginning of the coming winter to the port of Achusi with reinforcements of men and arms and cattle and provisions... The governor's chief purpose was to go to this port to begin making his settlement..." I

"The Governor rested in Coosa for twenty-five days, then set out on Friday, August 20th (1540), to look for a province, by name, Tuscalusa..." E His scouts were dispatched several days earlier on the Full Moon. "We departed from here (Summerville, GA) toward the west and southwest (down the Chattooga River Valley, map below) and went through towns of the Chief..." B "...and they spent that night beyond Talimuchusiour (today's Chattoogaville)..." "...a half-league beyond it near a stream (the Chattooga River)." E



Ancient Artifacts Stolen from the Citizens of Alabama
ALABAMA
INTRODUCTION      TRACKING and SUPERSCRIPTS
Southeastern Alabama Trails  DeVaca in Alabama
Moon Phases Acknowledgements and References

"...the next day (August 22, 1540), in a heavy rain, they spent the night in Itaba [or Ytaua E], a large town near a good river..." R today's Cedar Bluff, Alabama, where the Chattooga River joins the Coosa River. "... We stayed there for six days [eight on Rangel's calendar] because a river, which ran hard by the town, was swollen." E

You can read the translated details of Alabama's Conquest
written by DeSoto's ChroniclersBiedma,  Rangel,  Elvas  and  Inca
DESOTO's TRAIL ON GOOGLE EARTH   and   CONQUEST CALENDARS

Cedar Bluff is on a large reservoir today (both maps), caused by Weiss Dam raising the Coosa River by only a few feet nine miles below Cedar Bluff. That dam diverts the river into a man-made lake for power generation, cutting off twenty-one miles of river flow. The dam is in a narrow ravine where the river was naturally obstructed by heavy flow and debris during heavy rains when DeSoto reached that impasse just above that canyon.

Eight days later "the Governor left from Itaba with his army and spent the night in an oak grove" near today's Centre, six miles below Cedar Bluff. "The following day (on New Moon) they went to Ulibahali (Andrew Jackson's Turkey Town, just east of Gadsden, see map below), a very good town next to a large river..." R The Coosa River is 300 wide at that point.

DeSoto's Trail into Gadsden, Alabama
Enclosed Native Village near Gadsden

Ulibahali was "...enclosed like that in other towns seen there afterward, of thick logs, set solidly close together in the ground, and many long poles as thick as an arm placed crosswise... was plastered within and without and had loopholes..." E on a hundred foot high hill at today's Union Church. DeSoto's army orvertook it.

"On the other side of the (Coosa) river was a town where the chief was (today's Turkeytown). The governor ordered him to be summoned and he came immediately... and give him (DeSoto) the necessary tamemes and thirty women as slaves..." E for troops to wed at DeSoto's planned colony on Mobile Bay. They harvested grapes in that area for several days.

Ulibahali to Tallisi, Alabama"From this town of Ulibahali (Turkey Town on map at left) they left one Thursday, the second of September, and they spent the night in a pretty town hard by the river..." at Glencoe, hedged by Green Creek Mountain to the Coosa River, map at left, "and the next day, Friday, they (passed between mountains) came to Piachi (today's Ohatchee), which is alongside a river... On Sunday they left there and spent the night in the open (out of the mountains)... and the next day reached another called Toasi (today's Talladega)... where they rested for several days." R

"...we marched ordinarily five or six leagues (13 or so miles) daily when going through a peopled region, and as much as we could through a depopulated region..." E

"...[Then] we marched for five days... [Rangel says the first two nights wereTallassee - almost surrounded by the Tallapoosa River "in the open," his meaning "in a valley"] and reached Tallise..." E spelled "Tallassee" today, on September 18th, during Harvest Moon. "This town (fortress) was palisaded... with very good terraces, and almost surrounded by a river..." I at the Tallapoosa River's southeastern most bend (map at right).

Eighteen days later, "...the governor took leave of the good Chief Coosa and his people, who were very sad because we were leaving their country (actually, Chief Coosa was released E into hostile Indian territory where he would be slain, according to reports of another Spanish expedition, Tristan de Luna's, two decades later). We went by way of a road that they (natives and scouts) told DeSoto was the most suitable." I

Scouts had been dispatched from Tallassee to examine two different trails to Chief Tuscalusa, reported by the natives to be thirteen leagues (34 miles) from there. One trail passed through today's Montgomery, the other above it. The first crossed the Tallapoosa and Alabama Rivers (map below), the other only the Coosa River. DeSoto chose the later given that the Alabama River was too large to lead an army across un-necessarily.

DeSoto's Alabama River Indian Nations. We "...headed south (down the north bank of the Tallapoosa River), drawing near the coast of New Spain (the Gulf of Mexico)"B "... and spent the night... alongside the river (the Tallapoosa River near Old Bingham), and the next day, Wednesday
The Coosa River above Montgomery - DeSoto choose to cross it instead of the Alabama River.
(October 6, 1540), they went to Caxa (French Fort Toulouse), a wretched town on the bank of the river (the Coosa River, photo at left) on a direct line between Talisi and Tuscalusa." R "...and (we) crossed the River of Talise (the Coosa River, into Chief Tuscalusa's Province) in rafts and canoes, it being so full of water that they could not ford it." I "Next day, Thursday, they spent the night alongside the river (the Alabama River, photo below), and a town called Humati was on the other side of the water." R The Alabama River

"And the next day, Friday, they went to another town, which is called Uxapita (Prattville)... and the next day, Saturday, they established their camp one league before arriving at the town of Tuscalusa, in the open..."R They camped in the valley near Autaugaville. "On Sunday the Governor entered the town, which was called Atahachi." R "It was not the chief town of this state, but one of the other, ordinary ones." I Chief Tuscalusa lived in the center of his province in Piachi, several days travel to westward (see map above).

David, 6 foot 2, on Tuscalusa's High Small Hill - tall trees flank its creeks today - Press for Map
Biedma says Chief Tuscaloosa "...was an Indian so large that, to the opinion of all, he was a giant. He awaited us in peace in his town..." Inca says "...on a high small hill, an eminence from which much of the country could be seen in every direction..." Rangel and Elvas say, "the chief was on a balcony that was made on a mound to one side of the plaza..." "...on an elevated place..." Today's Potato Hill (pictured above) still stands over the west end of that valley; a location selected by Tuscaloosa to dramatize his nobility to the Spaniards. Trees (seen above) cover the wetlands behind the mound today.

"We made much festivity for him when we arrived and jousted and had many horse races, although he appeared to think little of this. Afterward we asked him to give us Indians to carry the burdens, and he responded that he was not accustomed to serving anyone, rather that all served him before... he said that he could not give us anything there, that we should go to another town of his, which was called Mauvilla, and that there he would give us what we wanted from him." B

Through Selma - Press for Larger Map"Finally, Tuesday, the twelfth of October, they left that town of Atahachi, taking the chief... and spent the night in the open (at Durant Bend). Wednesday, they arrived at Piachi, which is a high town, upon the bluff of a river" R ...the Cahaba River. DeSoto timed his arrival close to Hunter's Moon for the protection that extra light afforded.

Piachi River Crossing - press to enlargeDeSoto's people describe three different places in Piachi: their arrival point (Selma), their Cahaba River crossing place (at which Alabama's first Capitol was established), and their departure point (Chief Tuscalusa's home village), all within eight miles of the "River of Piachi." B R E I

Elvas says of their arrival, "Near it flowed a large river (the Cahaba River, right and below, what's left of it, flowing from today's Birmingham). The Governor asked the Indians for canoes. They said that they did not have any (women and children had probably fled in them), but they would make rafts... Diligently and quickly they made them and steered them; and since the water was quiet, the governor and his men crossed in great safety." Inca says they camped "on a peninsula the river formed... half a league from the river [crossing] in a beautiful valley..." near today's Highway 22 Bridge. Three miles from where the Cahaba River joins the Alabama River where both flow south as far as you can see. The King's Agent says it was "a large river, which we believe is the river that flows into the bay of Chuse..." (Mobile Bay, which was correct).

The Cahaba River at Piachi
Piachi's last village was located at today's Orrville, on very rich Alabama soil, just west of the crossing. "In that town of Piachi it was found out that they had killed Don Teodoro, and a black man, who came forth from the boats of Panfilo de Narvaez" B R an earlier Spanish coastal explorer who had been in Mobile Bay twelve years before DeSoto's army arrived. The two deserters had fled from that expedition west of Mobile Bay. They made it up the north bank of the Alabama River until encountering you-know-who. "Chief Tuscaloosa sent an Indian from that place to Mauvilla..." DeSoto's Southeastern Trail [ostensibly] to advise them to have provisions prepared and Indians for carrying..." E

"From the port (Charlotte Harbor, Florida) to Apalache (Marianna, North Florida)... the governor had marched east to west; from Apalache to Cofitachequi (Columbia, S.C.)... from southwest to northeast; from Cofitachequi to Xualla (Tryon, N.C.) from south to north; and from Xualla to Tuscaloosa (Autaugaville, AL)... he marched... from east to west to the province of Coosa (Summerville, GA) and... to Tuscaloosa from north to south." E

The Cahaba River - Map Drawn in 1818"On Saturday, the sixteenth of October (1540), they departed from Piachi and went to a forest (Alberta's hills), where one of the two Christians that the Governor had sent to Mabila came; and he said that there was a great gathering of armed people in Mabila. The next day they went to a palisaded town (southwest of Catherine), and messengers from Mabila came who brought... much chestnut bread, for there are many and good chestnuts in his land." R

From The River of Piachi to Mabila

THE BATTLE of MABILA           CONQUEST CALENDARS

You can read the translated details of the Battle of Mabila
by DeSoto's ChroniclersBiedma,  Rangel,  Elvas,  Inca

"On Monday, the 18th of October (1540), the day of St. Luke (under Hunter's Moon) at daybreak, the Governor arrived at Mabila [a league and half from camp], having passed that day through some towns... But these towns (near Catherine's pecan grove) detained the soldiers, pillaging and scattering themselves, for the land seemed populous; thus only 40 on horseback [Elvas says "15 horse and 30 foot"] arrived in advance with the Governor, and since they were a little detained, in order for the Governor not to show weakness, he entered in the town with Chief Tuscalusa." R

The King's Agent says, "We arrived at Mavila at nine o'clock in the morning (Inca says eight o'clock). It was a small and very palisaded town and was situated on a plain... Some important Indians came forth to us upon seeing us and asked the Governor, through the interpreter, if he wished to spend the night there or to enter the town... It seemed better to the governor to enter the town, and we [the few with DeSoto] were commanded to enter..." Mabila Postal Routes

Natives had chosen that location well in advance of DeSoto's arrival. Captives taken from Mobile Bay had guided DeSoto toward his waiting ships there. He planned to settle that port with his men and their new native wives. The captives, who had been with DeSoto for nearly a year, had managed to communicate his intent to others. They led DeSoto to Mabila, situated where southbound trails to Mobile Bay on the north side of the Alabama River converged (on St. Stephens-Cahaba Road beside Prairie Bluff, sign at right).

"Having entered within, we were walking with the Indians, chatting, as if we had them in peace, because only three hundred or so appeared there... they began to do their dances and songs... fifteen or twenty women in front of us... Chief Tuscalusa arose and entered one of those houses... the guard entered to bring him out, and he (the guard) saw so many people within... that he told the Governor that those houses were full of Indians, all with bows and arrows... The governor called to another Indian who was passing by there, who likewise refused to come. A Nobleman... seized him by the arm in order to bring him, and then the Indian gave a pull that set himself free.. the Nobleman put hand to his sword and gave him a slash that cut off an arm. Upon wounding this Indian, all began to shoot arrows at us... we suffered so much damage that we were forced to leave, fleeing from the town... When the Indians saw us outside, they closed the gates of the town and began to beat there drums and to raise banners with a great yell, and to open our trunks and bundles and display from the top of the wall all that we had brought..." B

"The few riders... (who had fled from) the village with their horses (and)... a few others who had arrived from the (army's) march... went to resist the... Indians (who) were pursuing the Spaniards who were fighting on foot. They, however much they tried, could not prevent the Indians from driving (DeSoto and his escorts) across the plain... until the Indians saw the horses charging them. Then the Indians held up a little and gave our men a chance to rally and form two divisions, one of foot soldiers and one of horsemen." I

"At this time, all the horse and foot (soldiers) who came marching behind (DeSoto), happened to reach Mavilla. They were of different opinions there as to whether they should attack the Indians in order to enter into the town or whether this should be avoided, as the entrance was doubtful. But, at last, it was decided to attack them." E

"These fell upon the Indians with such courage... that they did not stop until they had shut (the Indians)... in the village. But when (we) attempted to enter, such a shower of arrows and stones rained upon (us) from the wall and its loopholes that (we) withdrew... Seeing (us) retire, the Indians came out again with the same impetuosity as the first time, some through the gate and others jumping down from the wall. They engaged our men rashly, even grasping the horsemen's lances, and the Spaniards were forced, in spite of themselves, to (retreat) more than two hundred paces from the wall [probably to the pond mentioned below]." I

Battle of Mabila"Our men at once charged the enemy and drove them back toward the village, but they made a strong attack from the wall, from which the Spaniards came to understand that it was better to fight them on the plain, at a distance from the village, than near it (given that horses could be used to advantage only in the open). Thus from that time on, when (our people retreated) they purposely yielded more ground than the Indians forced them to lose, in order to draw the Indians away from the village..." I

"The Indians fought with so great a spirit that they drove us outside again and again. It took them so long to get back that many of the Christians, tired out and suffering great thirst, went to get a drink at a pond located near the stockade, but it was tinged with the blood of the dead..." E

"There were many wounds and deaths in this obstinate battle, but the one that caused the Spaniards the greatest regret and grief... because of the misfortune through which it happened and because of the person upon whom it fell... was that of Don Carlos Enriquez, a gentleman... He was married to a niece of the governor and, because of his great virtue and affability, he was esteemed and beloved by all... From the beginning of the battle this gentleman had fought like a very valiant soldier during all the attacks and retreats, and his horse having been wounded in the last retreat by an arrow that had gone into one side of his breast above the breast-leather, in order to draw it out he changed his lance from his right hand to his left, and grasping the arrow, pulled at it. With his body extended forward along the horse's neck, he made an effort (to remove the arrow), (but by) turning his head slightly over his left shoulder so that his throat, which was unprotected, without armor (for all the rest of his body was well armored)... (the arrow) wounded him in such a manner that the poor gentleman at once fell down from his horse with his (own) throat cut, though he did not die until the next day." I

"With such events incident to battles, Indians and Castillians fought with many deaths on both sides, although the mortality was greater among the Indians because they had no defensive arms (shields, crossbows, lances or horses). After fighting for more than three hours on the plain, the (Indians) realized that they were getting the worst... and they all decided to withdraw toward the village, close the gates, and station themselves on the walls. This they did, calling to one another to assemble from every direction. On seeing the Indians closed up (inside the fortress), the governor ordered that all the mounted soldiers, because they were better armed than the foot soldiers, dismount and attack the village, taking shields to defend themselves and axes to break in the gates, as most of them carried axes with them... Instantly a squadron... was formed, which attacked the gate, broke it down with axes, and entered through it with no little damage to themselves." (In the meantime, the Indians who were) closed up in the village... ran to the house that had been designated for the governor's service and chamber, which they had not attacked hitherto because it seemed to them that they had it safely (in their grasp). Thus they now went very boldly to enjoy the spoils that were in it." I

Author at ancient cemetery near Mabila"But they found the house well defended, because inside were three crossbowmen and five halberdiers of the governor's guard who were accustomed to accompany his equipage and servants, and one of the first Indians whom they captured in that country, who was now a friend and a faithful servant, and as such carried his bow and arrows to be ready when it should be necessary to fight against those of his own nation in the favor and service of the foreigner. There also happened to be in the house two priests, and a cleric and a friar, and two of the governor's slaves. All these people stationed themselves to defend the house, the priests with their prayers and (the guards) with arms, and they fought so courageously that the enemy could not gain the door. The Indians then decided to go in through the roof and accordingly opened it in three or four places, but the crossbowmen and the Indian archer worked so effectively that those who dared enter through the holes in the roof were shot down dead or badly wounded, as they appeared (through the holes in the roof). These few Spaniards were conducting this spirited defense when the general and his captains and soldiers came up to the door of the house,At Mabila's Cemetary fighting, and drove the enemy away from it. Thereupon those in the house were released and went out to the field, giving thanks to God for having saved them from such danger." I

"The other Spaniards (on the outside of the fortress) who could not go in through the gate, because it was (too) narrow, so as not to wait in the fields and lose time in fighting, made vigorous strokes at the wall with their axes and knocked off the mixture of mud and straw that (had been plastered on the wall)... uncovering the transverse logs... (then), assisting one another, they climbed up (the now exposed transverse logs), got over the wall, and entered the village... The Indians, on seeing the Castillians inside the village that they had considered impregnable... fought with the spirit of desperate men, in the streets as well as from the roofs, from which they did much damage to the Christians. The latter, in order to defend themselves from those who were fighting from the flat roofs or terraces, and to insure that they would not attack them from behind, and also in order that the Indians might not come back (outside) to gain the houses... decided to set fire to the (fortress). They did so and, as the houses were made of straw, in a moment a great deal of flame and smoke arose, which added itself to (the confusion of) the blood... and the massacre that was taking place in such a small village." I

"The governor, who had fought throughout the four hours on foot at the head of his men, went out of the village and mounted a horse. So as to increase the fears of the enemy and the spirit and courage of his men, he went back into the village, accompanied by another who was also mounted, and both riders, calling the names of Our Lady and "Santiago" ("St. James," the traditional battle cry of the Spanish) and shouting loudly to their men to make way, broke through the enemy squadron from one side to the other as it was fighting in the principal street and in the plaza. Then they turned back upon them, spearing them on either side..." I

"During these attacks and withdrawals, at a time when the governor was standing in his stirrups to throw a lance at an Indian, another who was behind him shot an arrow above the hind bow of the saddle, which struck in the small unprotected space the general (had) exposed between the saddlebow and the breastplate, and though he wore a coat of mail, the arrow broke through it and penetrated some six inches into (his) left hip. The good general (DeSoto) alike in order not to let it be known that he was wounded so that his men would not become alarmed because of this hurt, and because in the press of the fighting he had no opportunity to pull out the arrow, fought with it through all the rest of the battle, which was almost five hours, without being able to sit in the saddle, which was no small proof of the valor of this captain and if his skill in horsemanship..." I

"The fire that they had set to the houses increased momentarily and did the Indians much damage, for as they were numerous and could not fight in the streets and plaza, because they could not all get into them, they fought from the terraces and flat roofs. The fire trapped and burned themMavilla Burning there or forced them, in fleeing from it, to fling themselves down from the terraces.

"It did no less damage in the houses where it came in through the door, for... they were large rooms with only one door, and when the fire blocked it, those who were inside could not get out and were burned and suffocated by the fire and smoke. Many women who were closed up in the houses perished in this way." I

"The fire was equally harmful in the streets, because sometimes the wind blew the flame and smoke over the Indians, blinding them and helping the Spaniards to drive them back without their being able to resist. Again it would turn in favor of the Indians against the Christians and enable them to regain the part of the street that they had lost. Thus the fire went favoring now one side and now the other, and increasing the mortality of the battle." I

"The fighting was sustained on both sides with the cruelty and fury that has been seen until four o'clock in the afternoon, the battle having been continuous for seven hours. As this hour the Indians, seeing how many of their men they had killed by fire and the sword and that for lack of fighters their strength was decreasing while that of the Castillians was increasing, summoned the women and ordered them to take up some of the many arms that were lying in the streets and set about taking vengeance for the death of their people; and if they could not avenge them, they should at least see to it that all of them should die before becoming slaves of the Spaniards." I

Terror in Tuscalusa"When they gave this command... many of them had already been fighting bravely for some time along with their husbands, but with this new order not one remained who did not go to the battle, taking up arms that they found lying on the ground, of which there was an abundance. Many of the swords, halberds, and lances that the Spaniards had lost came into their hands... They also took up bows and arrows and shot them with no less skill and ferocity than their husbands. They stationed themselves in front of the latter to fight, and resolutely exposed themselves to death with much more nerve than the men. They thrust themselves among the enemy's weapons with great fury and recklessness, showing well that the desperation and courage of women in what they have determined to do is greater and more heedless than that of men. The Spaniards, however, seeing that the Indian women were doing this more with the desire of dying than conquering, and also out of regard for the fact that they were women, abstained from wounding and killing them." I

"While this long and stubborn battle lasted, the trumpets, fifes, and drums did not cease to sound the alarm very insistently, so that the Spaniards who had lagged behind in the rear guard would hurry to the assistance of their men. The maestro de camp and those who were coming with him (had) marched scattered about the country hunting and enjoying themselves, ignorant of what was going on in Mauvila. But when they (were close enough and) heard the noise of the military musical instruments and the shouts and outcries that sounded inside and outside the village, and saw the clouds of smoke that rose up in front of them, suspecting what it might be, they passed the word back to the last ones and all of them marched at top speed, arriving during the last part of the battle." I

"The battle that took place in the country was no less bloody; it was for this purpose that the fields had been cleared (by the Indians, before the Spaniards had arrived at Mauvilla) of timber and cleaned even to uprooting the grass and herbs. Having enclosed themselves in the village to make a defense, the Indians realized that because of their numbers they would hinder one another in fighting, and that because the space was limited they could not profit by their lightness and agility. Thus many of them agreed to go out to the fields, letting themselves down from the walls, where they fought with all good spirit and courage and eagerness for victory. But they soon recognized that their plan was illadvised, because if their lightness gave them an advantage over the Spanish foot soldiers, those on horseback were their superiors and speared them in the field entirely at their pleasure, without there being able to defend themselves, for these Indians do not use pikes, although they have them, which are the defense against horsemen, because they had not permitted themselves to believe that we would come up within reach of the pikes, but expected to assault and kill us with arrows a good distance before we should reach them. This is the chief reason the Indians use the bow and arrows more than any other weapons. Thus a great many of the died on the field were ill-advised in their ferocity and vain presumption. The Spaniards of the rear guard came up, horsemen and foot soldiers, and all attacked the ndians who were fighting in the field. After engaging in battle for a long period of time and receiving many deaths and wounds, though they arrived late, they received a very good share of them..." I

"At this time, which was now nearly sunset, the shouts and cries of those who were fighting in the village still sounded. Many of those who were mounted entered to aid their men; others remained outside to be ready for whatever might be needed. Hitherto for lack of room none of the horsemen had fought inside the village except the general and one other. Now, therefore, many mounted men entered and scattered through the streets, for there was work for them to do... Breaking through the Indians who were fighting there, they killed them." I

"Ten of twelve horsemen advanced along the principal street where the battle was fiercest and bloodiest, and where... Indian men and women were fighting most desperately... The horsemen charged upon them... so furiously that they knocked down many... of the Indians. The Spaniards were fighting hand to hand with the enemy, all of whom they killed, for none wished to surrender or give up their arms, but to die... fighting like good soldiers..." I

"...(when) the battle ended, one of the Indians who had been dazed (during the fighting)... attempted to save his life by fleeing... he ran to the wall and jumped up on it with much agility, as to escape across the fields... but seeing the Christians that were there... and the massacre that had occurred and that he could not escape, he preferred death to giving himself up as a prisoner... and taking the cord from his bow, he fastened it to the branches of a tree (which was part of the wall)... and the other (end of the cord) around his neck (and) let himself down from the wall so quickly that, although some Spaniards desired to rescue him... they could not get there in time. Thus the Indian was hanged by his own hand, causing amazement by his action... From this (we) surmised the recklessness and desperation with which all of the Indians (of North America) fight, for the one who was left alive killed himself." I

"We fought that day until it was night... we killed them all, some with fire, others with the swords, others with the lance..." B "All of the clothing carried by the Christians, the ornaments for saying mass, and the pearls were all burned there... and the horses that they tied within... were killed." I "...the Indians killed more than twenty of our men (most of whom were DeSoto's powerful friends or relatives), and two hundred and fifty of us were injured... We stayed there treating ourselves twenty-eight days (until the next Full Moon)... We took the women and divided them among the most seriously wounded..." B

Alabama River at Prairie Bluff near MabilaDeSoto had learned there that Francisco Maldonado was waiting him in the port of Ochuse (Mobile Bay), six days' journey from there. He arranged with Juan Ortiz (his native interpreter) that he should keep still about it.." E but the men had "...heard that we were up to forty leagues (105 miles) from the sea. Many wished for the Governor to go there... because the Indians gave us news of the small ships being there..." B Captives taken by Maldonado at Mobile Bay the proceeding winter had led DeSoto into the ambush at Mabila.

DeSoto's biggest problem after the battle was containing his men from escape to the ships.I Any bad news they carried could seriously damage his plans to colonize America... and New World news circulated fast in Europe. His scouts, who always patrolled on horseback for miles around his encampments, provided him with the topographic intelligence to solve that problem.

The men, having heard from captives that the ships were nearby, but not knowing where, had only their own intelligence, and not that of DeSoto's, to use for planning any escape. The last time they had seen a large river, however, which logic would hold flowed into the sea where his ships were, was in Piachi (near Selma) but that trail went back through hostile country.

To contain the men DeSoto moved them north and west from the battle ground, I away from the nearby Alabama River, to a place where scouts found the creeks flowing northwest just ten miles from the fort near today's Thomaston. That kept the men from following creek beds to the river, and, thereby, to their only escape route. Wounded and dead natives were found "in the huts and by the roads" during their four-week recovery while DeSoto led them farther north and west; downstream, to the troops way of thinking. None of them had a clue what DeSoto was up to.

Mabila's Road Sign with Donnie Henderson, who owns Prairie Bluff, and his assistant, Patty Ferro"The Governor felt it advisable to look for a land where we might in order to be able to spend the winter..." R DeSoto would direct his army farther north,I up Tuskaloosa-Prairie Bluff Road (sign at right near the fortress), to winter in Tennessee, thereby containing them above the north flowing Tennessee River to avert any escape. He would continue north at Springtime, searching for the South Sea passage to China on the north side of this "Island of Florida." He would never return.

CENTRAL ALABAMA POSTSCRIPT

Twenty years after DeSoto's visit, survivors of his expedition returned to Mabila in an attempt to settle that land. A conquistador named Tristan de Luna, who had been told of the bountiful Mauvila Province and its proximity to the sea and the safe winter anchorage there at Prairie Bluff, brought settlers to the place where DeSoto was defeated. To entice those settlers, who were well aware of DeSoto's losses at the legionary Mabila, Luna called that place "Nanapacana." In Spanish vernacular that name means "nothing but pecans:" the fruit and wood which was the only "treasure" brought from La Florida to Spain by DeSoto's ill-fated conquistadors. Everyone in Europe knew that. That name was magic for enticing New World settlers.

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